Public Transportation: Benefits for the 21st Century is a fact-filled report that provides an overview of the benefits that public transportation brings to individuals, communities and our nation as a whole.
Public transit's broad reach extends to all of America's communities, large and small, as it helps revitalize business districts, allows employers to tap into larger workforces, builds economic revenues and increases property values.
On the national level, public transportation supports our nation's goals and policies, including reducing our dependence on foreign oil, and providing critical response in emergencies. On an individual level, public transportation saves money, and provides people with choices, freedom and opportunities.
Read more or download a PDF of the complete report at the resource link below.
In This Report
This fact-filled report provides an overview of the benefits that public transportation brings to individuals, communities and our nation as a whole. Public transit's broad reach extends to all of America's communities, large and small, as it helps revitalize business districts, allows employers to tap into larger workforces, builds economic revenues and increases property values. On the national level, public transportation supports our nation's goals and policies, including reducing our dependence on foreign oil, and providing critical response in emergencies. On an individual level, public transportation saves money, and provides people with choices, freedom and opportunities.
Public Transportation: Benefits for the 21st Century
Public transportation in the 21st century is on the move, as more and more Americans are discovering the benefits of traveling on buses, trains, subways, trolleys and ferries.
In 2005, Americans took 9.7 billion trips on public transportation - 15 times the number of trips they took on domestic airlines. 1,2
From 1995 through 2005, public transportation ridership increased by 25 percent, 1,3 a growth rate higher than the 11 percent increase in U.S. population4 and higher than the 22 percent growth in use of the nation's hghways over the same period. 5
Currently there are more than 6,400 providers of public and community transportation offering Americans freedom, opportunity and the choice to travel by means other than a car. 3 Investments in our nation's public transportation infrastructure are paying off, with many communities-large and small-expanding and modernizing their systems.
The benefits and importance of public transportation impact everyone, even those who may never board a train or bus, and Americans understand its value-so much so that people are willing to tax themselves, if needed, to expand public transportation services. In recent years, voters around the country overwhelmingly passed local public transportation ballot measures.
Public transportation is critical to our nation's transportation system and is essential to the economic and social quality of life of our citizens.
|Public transportation helps everyone — commuters, families, students, senior citizens, persons with disabilities — live the American dream.|
Public Transportation: Diverse, Expansive, Forward Looking
Public transportation offers a variety of modes of travel, such as:
Road vehicles: bus, trolleybus, vanpool, paratransit service
Rail and other fixed guideways: heavy rail, light rail, commuter rail, automated guideway transit, inclined plane, cable car, monorail, aerial tramway
Water: passenger-only and vehicle ferries, water taxis
Many transit systems operate more than one mode of service. Approximately 1,500 agencies provide bus service, 80 provide rail service, 5,960 provide paratransit services and 120 provide services on other modes. 3
Through the development and deployment of 21st century technologies, today's riders are finding that public transportation is a far cry from the transit systems of yesteryear. Buses and trains are easy to get on and off with stops announced to riders. New information technologies alert passengers by e-mail or cell phone when the next bus or train is coming. People plan their trips on transit agency web sites. Some commuter buses and trains now have Wi-Fi capabilities-becoming rolling Internet cafes.
Public transportation helps everyone-commuters, families, students, senior citizens, persons with disabilities-live the American dream, as they seek to fulfill their personal and career goals, meet their daily needs and maintain a high level of transportation independence. Now, more than ever, it is evident that vital, strong public transportation systems are needed in this country.
|Approximately 1,500 agencies provide bus service, 80 provide rail service, 5,960 provide paratransit services and 120 provide services on other modes.|
Benefits of Public Transportation: Helps Build a Strong Economy
Transportation is the backbone of a strong and prosperous economy, and investments in public transportation generate significant economic benefits.
Investing in public transportation is good for business. It is estimated that every $10 million in capital investment in public transportation yields $30 million in increased business sales, and that every $10 million in operating investment in public transportation yields $32 million in increased business sales. 6
Creates and Sustains Employment
Public transportation is also good for American workers and their companies. Every $1 billion of federal investment in the nation's transportation infrastructure supports and creates 47,500 jobs.7 These include durable and non-durable manufacturing jobs, as well as jobs in non-manufacturing industries such as construction, finance, insurance and real estate, retail and wholesale trade, and service.
Public transportation not only helps to maintain and create jobs, it also moves people to and from their jobs. Businesses located near public transportation experience more employee reliability and less absenteeism and turnover. Employers have a larger labor pool from which to choose, and employees are happier because they are not driving in congestion delays.
|Public transportation not only helps to maintain and create jobs; it also takes people to and from their jobs.|
Enhances Personal Economic Opportunity, Saves Individuals Money
Public transportation use lowers household expenses and frees up more income for other needs. Automobile expenses are considerable:
For every dollar earned, the average household spends 18 cents on transportation, 94 percent of which is for buying, maintaining and operating cars. 8
Household transportation costs rise in areas with sprawl and few transportation services.
Savings with public transportation are substantial. They add up for everyone: every $10 million invested in public transportation saves more than $15 million, for both highway and transit users.6 Americans living in areas served by public transportation save $18 billion annually in congestion costs.9 Transit riders also save about $1,400 in gas per year. 10 In addition, transit availability can reduce the need for an additional car, a yearly expense of $6,251 in a household budget. 10
Connects Workers to Jobs in Suburban and Rural Areas
Suburban residents who ride public transportation are often headed for work. Due to increased rider demand, transit lines extend to outlying suburban communities, and bus shuttles carry workers from rail lines to employer destinations. For service and entry-level employees with limited mobility options, transit is a key link to suburban-based jobs.
Public assistance agencies also use public transportation to help more people enter the workforce. The Federal Transit Administration's Job Access and Reverse Commute Program provides grants to support transportation for thousands of Americans heading to their first jobs.
Benefits of Public Transportation: Conserves Energy, Reduces Oil Dependence
Energy conservation is a national priority. President Bush stated that our country is "addicted to oil" and needs to do more to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. 11
Perhaps the best kept secret is that public transportation can achieve significant energy savings. As an inherently energyefficient travel mode that consumes an average of one-half the oil consumed by the typical automobile user, public transportation is already leading the way in conserving oil.
Just by taking public transportation people can help reduce our country's dependence on foreign oil.
Each year, public transportation use in the U.S. saves: 10
1.4 billion gallons of gasoline, representing 4 million gallons of gasoline per day
The equivalent of 34 supertankers of oil, or a supertanker leaving the Middle East every 11 days
The equivalent of 140,769 fewer service station tanker trucks clogging our streets each year
The equivalent of 300,000 fewer automobile fill-ups each day
With public support for expanded public transportation services, the transit industry will be able to make an even larger contribution to helping our nation become energy independent.
|Just by taking public transportation people can help reduce our country's dependence on foreign oil.|
Benefits of Public Transportation: Relieves Congestion
Mobility, the freedom and ability to travel, has always been an important part of the American lifestyle. However, as more and more vehicles crowd the nation's roadways, traffic congestion is having an increasingly debilitating effect on our quality of life. According to the most recent Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) report on congestion in the top 85 cities in the U.S., congestion caused 3.7 billion hours of travel delay and 2.3 billion gallons of wasted fuel in 2003. The study found that the average annual delay per traveler climbed from 16 hours in 1982 to 47 hours in 2003. 9
|Without public transportation, travel delays would have increased by 27 percent.|
Reduces Congestion and Travel Time, Protects Mobility
Public transportation's role in reducing traffic congestion is significant. Without public transportation, travel delays in 2003 would have increased by 27 percent. The TTI report stated that public transportation services in America's most congested cities saved travelers 1.1 billion hours of added travel time. 9
The TTI report analyzed the impact of public transportation (2003) in 85 metropolitan areas, categorized as very large, large, medium and small.
|Public transportation services in America’s most congested cities saved travelers 1.1 billion hours of added travel time.|
As public transportation use grows, the savings will increase.
Throughout the country, state-of-the-art public transportation systems are reducing travel times, on every mode of travel, for the Americans who use transit more than 33 million times each workday.
Using public transportation, a passenger can travel the 10 miles from Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport to downtown in just 15 minutes. 12
San Francisco's high-speed catamarans have cut travel time for Bay-area commuters by 30 percent and have posted a 50 percent increase in ridership. 13,14
In New York City, the Lincoln Tunnel exclusive bus lanes accommodate 1,700 buses and 62,000 passengers a day, saving passengers 15-20 minutes in the morning rush hour compared with regular traffic. 15
|Riders who focused on saving fuel discovered other benefits of taking public transportation, such as avoiding traffic jams and reading or relaxing while traveling.|
An Important Alternative to Rising Gas Prices
The fact that public transportation helps people stay mobile was brought home in recent years when gas prices spiked to record highs at the pump. Transit agencies across the country reported record ridership increases as more and more people opted for transit over cars. Riders who focused on saving fuel discovered other benefits of taking public transportation, such as avoiding traffic jams and reading or relaxing while traveling. When prices ebbed, many individuals continued to
choose to ride public transit. As gas prices rise, public transportation will continue to provide an important option for the traveling public.
Benefits of Public Transportation: Protects the Environment, Improves Air Quality and Health
Increased investment in and use of public transportation can directly improve and protect the personal health of all Americans. Our car-centered transportation system has led to pollution and poor air quality. Emissions from road vehicles are the largest contributors to smog.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, asthma attacks lead to 2 million emergency room visits and 5,000 deaths per year in the U.S. Asthma accounted for more than 14 million missed school days. In terms of related health care costs and lost productivity, asthma costs totaled $14 billion.16
Public transportation produces 95 percent less carbon monoxide (CO), 90 percent less in volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and about half as much carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx), per passenger mile, as private vehicles. 17 Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions represent 82 percent of total U.S. human-made greenhouse emissions. 18
|America's public transportation systems can play a vital role in creating a healthier nation.|
America's public transportation systems can play a vital role in creating a healthier nation. Providing significant environmental benefits-by reducing smog-producing pollutants, greenhouse gases and run-off from paved surfaces that degrade the water supply, and by conserving ecologically sensitive lands and open spaces-public transportation is helping to meet national air quality standards. Increased use of public transportation could have an even greater impact in the future.
Expanded public transportation services are helping to provide public access to our national parks and adjacent communities, while maintaining the environmental quality of these treasures. Zion and Bryce in Utah, Rocky Mountain in Colorado, Yosemite in California, Acadia in Maine and Denali in Alaska are just some of the national parks now accessible by public transit.
|Public transportation produces 95 percent less carbon monoxide (CO), 90 percent less in volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and about half as much carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx), per passenger mile, as private vehicles.|
In addition to reduced pollution, direct health benefits of public transportation include:
Lower rates of respiratory and heart disease. The health effects of mobile source pollution can be severe and even life-threatening, particularly to children, older adults and adults with respiratory illnesses. Many groups are at greater risk because of chronic lung or cardiovascular disease, including people with diabetes, whose cardiovascular systems are threatened by particle pollution.
Lower accident rates. According to a 2006 report, public transit has 0.03 fatal accidents per 100 million miles-about 1/25th the rate for automobiles; injuries as well as fatalities are reduced.19
Quality of life. Public transportation fosters a more active lifestyle, encouraging more people to walk, bike and jog to transit stops. An analysis of 2001 National Household Travel Survey data for transit users finds that walking to and from transit helps inactive persons attain a significant portion of the recommended minimum daily exercise they need; 29 percent of respondents get 30 minutes or more of exercise a day from walking to or from transit.20
Benefits of Public Transportation: Provides Critical Support During Emergencies and Disasters
Time and again, the availability of public transportation during emergencies-both natural and man-made-has been critical in maintaining basic access, mobility and safety for individuals. In an emergency, people who had never used transit discover that public transportation can literally mean a matter of life or death.
The essential emergency services that public transportation adds to our transportation network cannot be underestimated.
In major evacuations of urban areas, only public transportation has the capacity to move millions of people quickly and to give critical support to first responders by delivering emergency equipment and transporting emergency response personnel. The 9/11 response illustrates public transit's vital role during times of emergency. 21
In New York City and in Shanksville, PA, transit buses shuttled police, fire and construction workers to emergency sites.
In Chicago, Pittsburgh, San Francisco and many other communities, transit provided safe routes out of downtowns, where buildings were evacuated and businesses were closed.
Transit agencies in Little Rock, Portland, OR, Denver and Kansas City took stranded airline passengers to hotels and special shelters.
|In major evacuations of urban areas, only public transportation has the capacity to move millions of people quickly and to give critical support to first responders by delivering emergency equipment and transporting emergency response personnel. The 9/11 response illustrates public transit's vital role during times of emergency.|
Natural or Man-Made Disasters, Earthquake Response
Public transportation is an important back-up alternative for moving people quickly during a disaster or emergency.
During the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in San Francisco, the Bay Bridge was closed for a month. BART carried 75 percent of trans-bay commuters-up from 35 percent before the bridge closed-helping avert a major economic disruption. 22
Transit systems in hurricane-prone states provide critical evacuation during hurricanes and flooding. 23
In August 2005, the Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority helped evacuate residents from homes, schools and businesses upon detection of a chemical leak from a rail tanker. 24
Across the nation, buses are used as heated or air-conditioned shelters and treatment centers for emergency workers at the sites of fires or hazardous materials incidents. 25
|When Americans face natural or man-made disasters, America's public transportation systems provide comfort, safety, security and rescue.|
|Public transportation offers mobility for residents of rural America, particularly people without cars. From 2002 through 2005, ridership for small urban and rural public transportation systems jumped nearly 20 percent. However, access to public transportation in these areas needs to be greatly expanded.|
Benefits of Public Transportation: Mobility for Small Urban and Rural Areas
Public transportation offers mobility for residents of rural America, particularly people without cars. From 2002 through 2005, ridership for small urban and rural public transportation systems jumped nearly 20 percent. 1 However, access to public transportation in these areas needs to be greatly expanded.
Provides Access for Isolated Residents
Two-thirds of rural Americans - 60 million people - are almost wholly unserved by public transportation.26 They live in counties that have either no service or so little service that they can only be characterized as isolated.
For the third of Americans in rural areas who do have access to public transportation, public transit systems enable residents to better access economic and community activities such as employment, education/training, health services, social/income maintenance services, shopping, entertainment/ community and friends/relatives. If these transit systems no longer existed, those who use them would either have to find alternative means of transportation or other activities.
RIDES (Rural Initiative Development of Effective Services) Mass Transit District, the transportation provider for 11 southeastern Illinois counties, coordinates transportation needs for clients of 80 agencies to meet job, service and training needs. 27
In the Robertsdale, AL, region, the Baldwin Rural Area Transit System provides more than 400,000 trips per year. 28
|Public transportation enhances local rural economic growth in many ways, increasing the local customer base for a range of services.|
Spurs the Economy
Public transportation enhances local rural economic growth in many ways, increasing the local customer base for a range of services-shopping malls, medical facilities and other services.
In South Carolina, the 43 member agencies of the Chesterfield County Coordinating Council share vehicles on fixed-route and dial-a-ride services and allow adults to ride school buses. 29
In Lebanon, NH, 65 percent of the riders on Advance Transit services are commuters going to work. 28
Benefits of Public Transportation: A Catalyst for Increased Real Estate Values and Development
|Real estate-residential, commercial or business-that is served by public transportation is valued more highly by the public than similar properties not as well served by transit.|
Residents and community leaders across the nation are recognizing that fully functional, high-capacity, regional public transportation services are essential to grow America's communities in a way that enhances and promotes real estate development. In addition, communities that invest in public transportation attract more visitors and shoppers, public events, commercial businesses and employers, realizing enhanced development and high economic returns.
In Arlington County, VA, development in two WMATA Metrorail corridors is concentrated on 6 percent of the land in the county but produces almost half the county's tax revenue. 30
Tri-Met in the Portland, OR, area is a catalyst for transit-oriented development. More than $6 billion in development has occurred within walking distance of the MAX light rail stations since 1980 .31
Metro in Los Angeles, CA, has a very successful joint development program representing more than $4 billion in local development investment. 32
Boosts Real Estate Values
Real estate-residential, commercial or business-that is served by public transportation is valued more highly by the public than similar properties not as well served by transit.
A University of North Texas study found that between 1997 and 2001 commercial properties located near Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) stations increased in value 24.7 percent, while properties not served by rail increased in value by only 11.5 percent. Values of residential properties near the station rose 32.1 percent compared with a 19.5 percent increase for properties not served by rail stations. The total value of new investment from 1999 through 2005 was more than $3.3 billion. 33
According to the Urban Land Institute, residential properties for sale near commuter rail stops in California consistently enjoy premiums; in the San Diego region, these properties reaped a 17 percent advantage. 30
|Public transportation encourages economic and social activities and helps create strong neighborhood centers that are economically stable, safe and productive.|
Transit Expands Choices; Generates Financial Returns and Savings
Placing residential and commercial development near transit is a growing trend. Transit-oriented development (TOD) is mixed-use residential and commercial development that brings housing, shopping, educational institutions and working opportunities within walking distance (usually defined as 1/4 to 1/2 mile) of a transportation hub.
Provides convenient access to public transportation and integration of transit in the community
Provides land-use programs that generate synergies and create a range of housing types, from single-family homes to apartments, to accommodate diverse incomes and family structures
Revitalizes neighborhoods, increases social interaction and pedestrian activity, enhances safety, and helps create a sense of "place" that will help make a community unique and special
Generates a financial return for communities and businesses as well as individual and collective savings that can be captured and invested in housing or amenities rather than transportation, parking and auto-oriented infrastructure
TOD exists in dozens of cities, from New York to San Francisco to Orlando to Austin.
In Santa Clara County, CA, the Ohlone Chynoweth station was redesigned as a mixed-use community, including a pedestrian village center, apartments and retail space. 34
The Pearl District in downtown Portland, OR, has become a new 24-hour community. Loft apartments, restaurants, shops, and services have been revitalized since the Portland Streetcar service began in 2001. 34
Fosters More Livable Communities; Encourages Neighborhood Interaction
Public transportation encourages economic and social activities and helps create strong neighborhood centers that are economically stable, safe and productive.
When commuters ride public transportation or walk, contact with neighbors tends to increase, ultimately helping to bring a community together. By reducing reliance on cars, transitfriendly communities also promote more physical activity.
|Placing residential and commercial development near transit is a growing trend.|
Benefits of Public Transportation: Provides Access for All Ages
Public transportation is important for a growing number of people at various stages of life.
Connects to Educational Facilities
Approximately 12 percent of public transportation users are en route to schools of various types; school districts, educators and concerned parents are relying on expanded public transportation services.35 Unlimited access transit pass programs at many universities throughout the country provide free, system-wide service to students, faculty and staff. These programs reduce auto-related expenditures and save universities millions of dollars.
Salt Lake City's University TRAX LRT line serves 46,000 students and faculty, relieving campus congestion and reducing university parking costs.36
The Milwaukee County Transit System's UPASS program includes four schools. Students receive a free UPASS as long as they are registered for at least one course. During the first two years of the program, the percent of students traveling by transit to the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee doubled.37
The Worcester, MA, Regional Transit Authority connects 26 training facilities and two GED test centers, as well as 26 major employers and 24 child-care facilities.27
In Duluth, MN, the UPASS program allows access to the Duluth Transit Authority, easing parking costs and congestion at three area colleges and universities. 38
Many other public transportation agencies and educational institutions-in areas such as Syracuse and Albany, NY, Madison, WI, Fargo, ND, Pittsburgh, Seattle and Chicago- have established successful cost-saving partnerships.
|Approximately 12 percent of public transportation users are en route to schools.|
Provides Seniors with Independence
Largely because of limited transportation options, more than half of all non-drivers age 65 and older stay at home on a typical day. Compared with older drivers, older nondrivers in the U.S. make 15 percent fewer trips to the doctor, 59 percent fewer shopping trips and visits to restaurants, and 65 percent fewer trips for social, family and religious activities. For many non-drivers, public transportation is the only alternative to asking for a ride for trips outside their immediate neighborhoods. 39
By 2025, an estimated 20 percent of the population-one in five persons-will be over age 65; providing mobility options is critical for older Americans and for those who care for them.39 It is imperative that our transportation system find new ways to meet the needs of citizens who are unable to drive or who want other mobility options, so that they are better able to participate in the community and the economy. According to a national survey of individuals age 65 or older, conducted by Harris Interactive in November 2005, more than four in five seniors believe public transportation is a better alternative to driving alone, especially at night, and 83 percent agree that public transit provides easy access to the things that older adults need in everyday life. 40
At the 2005 White House Conference on Aging, ensuring that older Americans have transportation options to retain their mobility and independence received the third most votes of 73 issues considered, with 1,002 ballots out of a maximum of 1,200. 41
There is progress. Virtually every transit system provides special services for older Americans. Some new programs and advanced technologies designed for older Americans include:
Outreach and education programs and rider reward programs; some systems offer personalized sessions on how to use the bus and policies that allow bus drivers to deviate from routes to get as close as possible to requested stops
Easy-to-use, easy-to-access equipment such as speaking signs and vehicles
"Kneeling" hydraulic buses that lower when passengers board the bus
Passenger information and real-time technology and smart cards
|More than four in five seniors believe public transportation is a better alternative to driving alone, especially at night.|
|Public transportation connects people with life's essential services.|
Benefits of Public Transportation: Delivers Essential Health and Human Services
Transportation is an integral part of health or social services programs. Operators of these programs rely on public transit to reach the intended target groups, and to assure access and opportunity for all Americans. Transit connects people with life's essential services.
Through advanced technology, communities across the country are providing residents with improved coordination of services and trip scheduling, which facilitates medical trips or other similar trips.
Provides Important Options for Health Care Delivery
The availability of public transportation can shrink duplication in transportation services. This helps agencies provide an option to the costly use of ambulance and EMS services, and helps relieve other public agencies of transportation responsibility - thereby increasing productivity.
Brokered transit systems utilizing advanced technologies include Reach Your Destination Easily Transit in rural Buffalo County, NE. The state's first brokered transit system has expanded operating hours, abolished waiting time requirements and expanded transportation access-saving Buffalo County $400,000 compared with the cost of the same number of trips provided at the pre-coordination costs. 42
A Vital Link for Citizens with Disabilities
Public transportation systems provide a vital link to the more than 51 million Americans with disabilities. 43 The nation's transit systems have implemented services to ensure that persons with disabilities can remain actively involved in their communities, maintain productive roles in the economy, and have access to the full range of facilities and services needed to lead enjoyable and productive lives.
Reduces Medicaid Costs
Where public transportation is available, Americans eligible for Medicaid make regular use of it, adding up to huge savings for taxpayers.
Under its Medical Transportation Program (MTP) in Portland, OR, Tri-Met became the single point of access for nonemergency transportation for Medicaid program participants in the agency's three-county service area. Through MTP, Medicaid non-emergency trips on transit are now made
more often. The state of Oregon estimated that total savings from this program were more than $2.6 million in 2001-02 and 2002-03.42
In Florida, Miami-Dade Transit's "bus pass" approach to moving about 1 percent of the region's Medicaid clients to less expensive fixed-route trips from more expensive paratransit trips saved the Medicaid program more than $9,285,000 per year. MDT received more than $1,900,000 per year from the sale of bus passes. 42
Public transportation is critical to this nation's future. A stronger economy, conservation of energy and resources, reduced congestion, less global warming and improved air quality and health, critical support during emergencies and disasters, increased real estate values and development, mobility for small urban and rural communities, increased access for groups of all ages and circumstances, lower health-care costs-all contribute to a better quality of life.
Increased investment in public transportation is essential if we are to fulfill the needs of all Americans.
Public transportation is on the move in the 21st century, and it will keep Americans moving in the right direction by offering them choice, freedom, mobility and opportunity.
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- “Asthma and Indoor Environments: About Asthma.” Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006 at www.epa.gov.
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- BART’s Contribution to the Bay Area. San Francisco: Sedway Group, July 1999.
- “HARTline, Headlines, Hurricane Updates.” Tampa, FL: Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority, 2004 at www.hartline.org.
- Weathers, William A. and Jane Prendergast. “Officials Worried About Chemical Explosion.” Cincinnati Enquirer at cincinnati.com, August 29, 2005 and Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority. “News Release: 13 Metro Buses Now Helping with East End Evacuation,” August 29, 2005.
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- Ten Principles for Successful Development Around Transit. Washington: Urban Land Institute, 2003.
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- “More than $4 Billion in New Development Planned Around Metro Rail System.” Los Angeles: Metro News Pressroom, September 17, 2004.
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Services. Washington: Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board, 2003.
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